Police found the child and returned him home, where they found the other children and conditions they described as unsafe and unsanitary.
The investigation began March 31 after police found 12-year-old child, who went missing in Fairfield, California.
A missing report had been filed for the boy, who was found sleeping under the bush in a nearby home's yard.
But officers say the conditions between their first visit in March and their second on Friday had not improved, although they did conduct a search of the home.
They said they immediately noticed the child's nine siblings living in squalor. The mother, 30-year-old Ina Rogers, faces child neglect charges.
The police Family Violence Unit, Child Welfare Services and the District Attorney's Office then launched an investigation.
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On the day the children were removed, the house was messy because she had just torn it apart looking for her missing son, who was angry because his parents had taken away his tablet computer, Rogers said. The investigation revealed a long and continuous history of severe physical and emotional abuse of the children.
The California father and his spouse forced their children to play in rooms with scuffed walls and debris. He is now being held at a bail of just over $5 million.
Sharon Henry, chief deputy district attorney for Solano County, said she was "horrified" by the statements from the children and that torture was carried out in the house "for sadistic purposes".
"The Fairfield Police Department is committed to ensuring the safety of our greatest asset and future, the children of our community", police said.
Rogers, 30, was arrested on suspicion of neglect last month and released after posting $10,000 bail. "My children get bumped and bruised and scratched as a result of they're children however that is it".
Rogers, in an interview with an area TV station, denied the allegations against her and said she would never allow in her home the kind of abuse law enforcement claims took place.
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Rogers stated the youngsters slept in a single bed room as a result of they have been shut; cots have been saved in a bed room closet. "And so I've had many people question my right to parent and I feel this whole situation has exploded".
She continued, "I strive, I thrive on being a good parent to my children".
My husband has a lot of tattoos, he looks like a scary individual, and that's why people are so quick to judge him.
She described herself as an "amazing mother" and her husband, Allen, as an "amazing person".
On Friday, the biological father of some of the 10 children was also arrested and booked on nine counts of felony torture and six counts of felony child abuse.
This photo combo of booking mugs provided by the Solano County Sheriff's Office in Fairfield, Calif., shows Jonathan Allen and his wife, Ina Rogers. "However I do not know how one can hold it quiet when you could have 10 children".
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"There's no broken bones, there is no major scars, nothing", Rogers told reporters in front of her house.