Multi-tiered roofs, beautifully designed archways and magnificent temples and residences; these are prominent characteristics of traditional Confucian architecture. These elements were carefully depicted through the application of Confucian values. Confucian values and their architectural representations can help strengthen the correlation between Confucianism and architecture.
The Confucian Temple as an Educational Institution
In order to commemorate Confucius, Chinese people built Confucian temples to honour his contribution to Chinese culture. (4) Confucian temples were built in county schools throughout the empire, either to the front of or on one side of the school. Still to this day, Confucian temples represent knowledge and education, rather than worship alone. Confucian temples are often referred to without “Confucius” in the title. For example, the Confucian temple located in Beijing is named the Ancient University and the Confucian temple in Hanoi, Vietnam, is known as the Temple of Literature. These alternative names of Confucian temples represent the educational values that Confucius stood for. Furthermore, these temples would contain stone inscriptions on carved turtles displaying the names of successful students from the days of imperial China.
Unlike Daoist or Buddhist temples, Confucian temples do not normally contain images. (5) This absence emphasised the teaching of Confucius and not the worshiping of the teacher himself. Statues have appeared because it satisfies people’s needs to identify with Confucius. Often times, people will pay respect to Confucius by leaving items such as a basket of flowers, as seen in the photo below.
Harmonious Social System Maintained through Architectural Design
Confucian thought was the core of China’s hierarchical social system. (1) The hierarchical Confucian code of conduct influenced the residential design of courtyards. The sections and walls within courtyards were distinctly separated in order to represent the hierarchical social system as well as the Confucian influenced value of superior/subordinate relationships, for example the relationship of parent/child.
In courtyard residences, the centre of the courtyard was thought to be superior and most significant while the sides were less so. The north end of the courtyard was highly desirable as it faced south and received the most sunlight. This choice location was therefore used by the head of the household, or by family elders. (2) Additionally, the emperor of China sat on his throne and faced south. This was a traditional form of conduct and these values were reflected in the placing of important figures within residential courtyards and palaces.
According to Confucian family order, the east and west ends were occupied by the younger generation. The courtyard was a self-enclosed world that represented safety and harmony. Within it, relationships were defined by Confucian values and space was allocated accordingly (1)
Today, a sense of the courtyard has been preserved through the use of hutongs, not only for family, but community usage as well.
Individuals Commemorated through Memorial Arches
Highly honourable individuals exhibiting a certain Confucian virtue were often commemorated through memorial arches. These arches served as a way to honour the deeds of people and offered insight into the social values of the time. The names of those who were honourable were scripted on the arch and a formal application process was in place if the public deemed the person no longer worthy of commendation. (3)
5. Sommer, Deborah (2002). “Destroying Confucius: Iconoclasm in the Confucian Temple”. On Sacred Grounds: Culture, Society, Politics and the Formation of the Cult of Confucius: 95–133.
Filial piety is the Confucian virtue of xiao which teaches respect for our parents, elders, and past generations of ancestors. This virtue stands at the forefront of Confucianism and is regarded as the highest norm and the ultimate foundation of ethics. All morality and civilization come from it. (1)
In Confucianism, a child’s obedience is expected to continue beyond the death of a parent. Filial piety not only paves the way to self-cultivation so that one can aspire to become a virtuous person (junzi), but also helps to secure the nation and society as a whole as being virtuous for decades and generations to come. As Confucius advised: “He who has grown to be a filial son and respectful younger brother will be unlikely to defy his superiors and there has never been the case of someone inclined to defy his superiors and stir up a rebellion.” (Analects 1:2)
Confucius put a strong emphasis on respect and reverence as the core concepts of filial piety. In practice, one should perform it in accordance with propriety (li). The Analects states that Confucius once said, “When your parents are alive, serve them in accordance with the rites; when they pass away, bury them in accordance with the rites and sacrifice to them in accordance with the rites.” (Analects 2.5)
On April 6, the concept of filial piety was applied through the celebration of one of the most important festivals in the Chinese calendar, the Quingming Festival, also known as Tomb Sweeping Day. Families gathered together on the day to pay respect to their deceased ancestors. Several traditions are performed to honour the deceased, including presenting ancestors with raw food, decorations and gifts; however cleaning an ancestor’s gravesite, or tomb sweeping, has been emphasised as the concrete expression of practicing filial piety. (2)
As many families are provided the opportunity to demonstrate this “concrete expression” of filial piety to their beloved ancestors, some 100,000 people are not. Due to the lack of space for proper burial sites, Chinese families are deprived of the dignity to lend proper respect to their dead. The waiting time for a permanent resting place in Hong Kong is becoming longer, as the once two-year wait has now lengthened to nearly five years. Burial sites are soaring in price as supply fails to catch up with demand. For fear that their property price will go down; most people are refusing to allow permanent resting places to be built in their backyard, a phenomenon known as NIMBY. In response to this issue, the Chinese government is offering financial incentives to families who choose an alternative option – the scattering of ashes into the ocean. Despite the cash incentive, few families are willing to take up the sea burial option, as they would prefer to stick to traditional burial cemeteries. (3)
The people of China are in a dilemma as they struggle to find the best way to honour and respect their ancestors. Is there “room” for improvement when fulfilling filial piety in the modern world? Our answer would be yes – The application of Confucianism in modern society can play an important role in reviving filial piety.
What do you think can be done to restore filial piety in the 21st Century? Let us know by leaving a comment.
Read our next post titled, A Modern Museum Teaches the Traditional Lessons of Filial Piety to learn what unique effort the Chinese government is making to re-introduce filial piety as a core value in society.
A museum in China’s Sichuan province has been created to reinforce one of Confucius’s core values and to teach current and future generations the true meaning and virtue of filial piety. The Modern Filial Piety Culture museum dedicates itself to the topic of filial piety and provides visitors with examples of devotion and sacrifice involved in the act of filial piety.
Several exhibits portray the practice of filial roles.
One exhibit includes a carriage which two sons pulling their mother in a carriage. They walked through over 600 towns and cities across China to fulfil her dying wish to travel. They wore out 12 pairs of shoes in the process and some of these shoes are on display beside the carriage.
With the one-child policy in place, the responsibility of filial piety usually falls on a single offspring. The museum hopes that the examples they provide will inspire the younger generation to perform filial acts even better.
“They may feel guilty that they don’t care enough for their parents and return home to wash their parents’ feet. That’s the kind of result we are hoping for, said Museum founder Liao Lin. ”
To read the full article click here.
Nations have united with Singapore to bid farewell to the first Prime Minister of Singapore and also a leader who has come to be known as the founding father of modern Singapore. Lee Kuan Yew passed away last Monday at age 91.
More than 1.2 million Singaporeans formally paid their respects to Lee and nearly half a million queued to visit his body at parliament house. World leaders, both former and current, came together for the event. Singapore government has declared seven days of national mourning and flags will fly at half-staff on state buildings .(1)
US President Obama honoured Lee Kuan Yew for transforming Singapore from, “a backward colonial entrepot into a shining high-tech economy.” He praised Lee as, “A true giant of history.” (2)
Over 100 thousand people braved the heavy rain and lined a 15km route through the city to farewell Singapore’s founding leader.
Lee Kuan Yew’s Blend of East and West
Lee Kuan Yew brought a blend of Eastern and Western values when leading the nation of Singapore. The British educated Lee Kuan Yew had brought Confucian values to his fledgling nation. A law graduate from Cambridge University, the young Lee used his legal background to enter politics and direct him for a future in leadership and nation-building. He encouraged the strengths of Singapore’s society with its cultural emphasis on hard work, family, education and responsibility.
The Eastern value of responsibility can be understood by Confucian thought as fulfilling one’s obligations to family and society as well as supporting righteous government.
In an article titled, Lee Kuan Yew, the Man who Remade Asia, Orville Schell stated, “Family, diligence, filial piety, education and obedience to authority are values that Mr Lee viewed as binding agents for developing countries in need of methods for maintaining order during times of rapid change.” (3) In other words, these values can be applied to other countries with different cultural backgrounds.
Of the values that Schell identified, perhaps the strongest shared by Confucius and Lee Kuan Yew is that of family.
As Lee wrote in his book titled From Third Word to First: the Singapore Story – 1965-2000,
“Singapore depends on the strength and influence of the family to keep society orderly and maintain a culture of thrift, hard work, filial piety, and respect for elders and for scholarship and for learning.”
In what other ways did Lee Kuan Yew blend Eastern and Western values? Let us know your thoughts by leaving a comment!
Applications are still open for the 2015 International Symposium titled Confucianism and Modern Society.
When: Thursday, May 14 and Friday, May 15
Where: Bond University
How can I attend as a speaker or as a guest?
Simply contact Paulina via email@example.com before April 7 to express your interest in becoming a speaker or by May 8 if you would like to join us as an audience member!
A joint collaboration between the Bond University Centre for East-West Cultural and Economic Studies and Beijing Foreign Studies University Center for East-West Relations, this inaugural symposium seeks to identify problems, opportunities and innovations that may benefit from the interaction of Confucian thought with contemporary life.
The Organising Committee invites proposals for presentations that address the central symposium theme of “Will the vitality of the Confucian tradition serve and advance modern society”, along with expressions of interest for panel and round table participation. Proposals should be brief (100-250 words) and include a working title and subject matter overview.
Keynote Address 1: Confucianism and Business
Speaker: Dr Yang Xiaohua (San Francisco University) – What Confucius can teach us as China goes global?
Respondent: Dr Caitlin Byrne (Bond University)
Panel 1: Confucianism – Business Ethics and Governance
Speaker 1: Mr Alan Chan (Singapore) – Confucian Entrepreneurship
Commentary: Professor Raoul Mortley (Bond University)
Speaker 2: Mr Reg Little (retired Australian diplomat and author) – Confucian ethics and the 21st Century Global Business
Speaker 3: Miss Luan Yilan (Beijing Foreign Studies University) – The Chinese Interpretive Context of “Democracy”
Panel Chair: Rosita Dellios
Keynote Address 2: Harmony, reciprocity and engagement: Confucian approaches to modern life
Speaker: Professor Shan Chun (China University of Political Science and Law) – Confucian Humaneness in Modern Human Rights Politics?
Respondent: Professor Bee Chen Goh (Southern Cross University)
Panel 2: Confucianism in Modern Society
Speaker 1: Dr Tian Chenshan (Beijing Foreign Studies University) – Confucian Values in a Changing World Cultural Order – The Predicament
Speaker 2: Dr Rosita Dellios (Bond University) – Confucius and Women
Speaker 3: Professor Wen Haiming (Renmin University of China) – Significance of Confucianism: Cultivating oneself as Concretizing one’s Intentions
Speaker 4: Dr Yu Lei (Renmin University of China) – Confucius’s Thoughts of “He” (和) and Its Influence on China’s Foreign Strategy: China’s Path to its “Peaceful” Rise at Systemic and Sub-systemic levels
Panel Chair: Samad Aftab
Round Table Discussion with Audience:
Confucianism for the 21st Century
Speaker 1: Dr James Ferguson (Bond University) – Title TBC
Speaker 2: Dr Nguyen Ngoc Tho (Vietnam National University) – Confucianism and humane education in contemporary world
Speaker 3: Ms Vivian Man Wai Fung (Sino-Aust Culture Association Inc) – Good ethics, good business
Moderator: Dr Jonathan Ping (Bond University)
To Confucius, the ideal person is a scholar bureaucrat, not a successful entrepreneur. His (or her) priority should be on serving society at large, not on making personal gains and profit. Does this suggest that Confucian values are completely irrelevant to modern entrepreneurial development?
It has been argued that Confucian values such as obedience, respect for authority and emotional control are not naturally compatible components of a common entrepreneurial standard, (1) however these and other Confucian values can play a positive role in entrepreneurial prosperity for China and the rest of the world if applied correctly.
Confucian entrepreneurs can be defined as those who apply traditional Chinese cultural values in respect to maintaining the moral beliefs of Confucianism in all aspects of business practice. Though sometimes Confucianism is viewed as hostile to entrepreneurship, it has played a vital role in the study of Confucian entrepreneurs “as it initially meant intellectuals and has served as a set of political ideas practiced within a hierarchy of ethical obligations to family and community.” (2)
In a research study conducted by Ying Fan of Durham University Business School, titled, “Chinese Cultural Values and Entrepreneurship: A Preliminary Consideration,” a link was established between Confucian values and entrepreneurial attributes. Confucian values were applicable to positive interpersonal relations in business practice and in the workplace, in regards to successful human resource management in particular. These values included: trustworthiness, Ren (compassion, humanness), Li (ritual, etiquette), harmony and tolerance of others. These values of interpersonal relations can generate a more successful human resource management. Business philosophy can be guided by Confucian values of long term orientation, resistance to corruption, and nurturing of guanxi (relationships), which can be utilised for improvement of networking and developing positive business connections.
Confucian values can aid in the creation of entrepreneurs who are true leaders of society, and who hold a sense of righteousness and de (moral power). Confucius believed that leaders were expected to rule in a way that is just and moral. This view of practice could have the potential to create entrepreneurs who perform ethical business practice. Under Confucian values, if businesses are governed righteously, they will succeed.
Although it can be maintained that there are a number of Confucian values that may not necessarily impact positively on entrepreneurship development – for example, lack of initiative and innovation (due to the possible disruption of the existing order and threat to social harmony), if righteousness and profitableness are balanced equally, moral values can be reached and play a positive role in shaping and maintaining ethical business practice. This, in turn, will create profitable business and most importantly, ethical obligations to family and society can also be achieved.
Internationally recognised and leading Confucian scholar, CKGSB Honorary Professor of Humanities Tu Weiming discusses how the virtues of a Confucian entrepreneur can benefit not only shareholders, but serve and influence society at large. (Click on image above to view article and watch video)
WISDOM OF THE WEEK
Confucius said of the ruler:
The junzi (morally noble person or persons) do not mind being in office; all they mind is whether they have qualities that entitle them to office. They do not mind failing to acquire recognition; they are too busy doing the things that entitle them to recognition.
WANT MORE ON THIS TOPIC?
You may also be interested in reading: “Why China Doesn’t Have It’s Own Steve Jobs.” Panos Mourdoukoutas discusses Schumpeterian entrepreneurship and what China can do to create its own celebrated entrepreneurs.